By LINDSEY TANNER
AP Medical Writer
Published: Thursday, Jun. 9, 2011 – 11:20 am
Last Modified: Thursday, Jun. 9, 2011 – 1:36 pm
CHICAGO — Preschool has surprisingly enduring benefits lasting well into adulthood, according to one of the biggest, longest follow-up studies of its kind.
Better jobs, less drug abuse and fewer arrests are among advantages found in the study that tracked more than 1,000 low-income, mostly black Chicago kids for up to 25 years.
Michael Washington was one of them. Now a 31-year-old heating and air conditioning contractor, Washington attended a year of preschool at Chicago’s intensive Child-Parent Center Education Program when he was 4.
The ongoing publicly funded program focuses on language development, scholastic skills and building self-confidence. It involves one or two years of half-day preschool, and up to four additional years of educational and family services in grade school. Preschool teachers have college degrees and are certified in early childhood education, and parents are encouraged to be involved in the classes.
Washington lived in an impoverished West Side community and has strong memories of preschool field trips to the library, zoo and planetarium where he learned to love science. He says he’ll never forget the strong influence of his preschool teachers.
“You expect your mom and dad to care for you. But when a stranger, who has no ties to you whatsoever, takes the time to invest in you, takes the time to listen, that makes you open your eyes bigger,” said Washington, now living in Blue Island, Ill. “It was real cool.”
Washington got good grades in elementary and high school, and attended two years of college at Chicago State University. Unlike other kids he knew from the neighborhood who didn’t attend preschool, he says he never tried drugs and was never arrested.
The study tracked nearly 900 children into adulthood who attended the program in the early 1980s, and compared them to almost 500 low-income Chicago youngsters, most of whom didn’t attend preschool.
The results were published Thursday in the online version of the journal Science. They bolster findings from similar, smaller studies and show that high-quality preschool “gives you your biggest bang for the buck,” said Dr. Pamela High, chair of an American Academy of Pediatrics committee that deals with early childhood issues. She was not involved in the study.
Though many preschool kids also got extra services in grade school, including intensive reading instruction, the researchers found the most enduring effects, particularly for non-academic success, were due to one or two years of preschool. The authors theorize that those intensive early childhood experiences built intellectual skills, social adjustment and motivation that helped children better navigate their high-risk environments.
To be sure, the challenges facing the children in both groups were still insurmountable to many. As adults, the average annual income for those who went to preschool is less than $12,000 and almost half of them had been arrested as adults. As dismal as those outcomes, the numbers were still better than for the group that didn’t attend preschool. And experts not involved in the study called the results impressive.
“To still show really any advantage for such a long period of time is remarkable and noteworthy,” said Kyle Snow, director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children’s applied research center.
The study’s lead researcher, Arthur Reynolds of the University of Minnesota, said the differences between the groups are meaningful and translate to big savings to society for kids who attended preschool.
The average cost per child for 18 months of preschool in 2011 is $9,000, but Reynolds’ cost-benefit analysis suggests that leads to at least $90,000 in benefits per child in terms of increased earnings, tax revenue, less criminal behavior, reduced mental health costs and other measures, he said.
“No other social program for children and youth has been shown to have that level of return on investment,” he said.
Among the study results:
-80 percent of the preschool group finished high school versus 75 percent of the others;
-Nearly 15 percent of the preschool group attended a four-year college, versus 11 percent of the others;
-28 percent of the preschool group had skilled jobs requiring post-high school training versus 21 percent of the others;
-Average annual adult income for the preschool group was about $11,600 versus $10,800 for the others. The low average incomes include zero earnings for those in prison and close to that for adults who were still in college or studying elsewhere.
-14 percent of the preschool group had abused drugs in adulthood versus 19 percent of the others;
-48 percent of the preschool group had been arrested in adulthood and 15 percent had been incarcerated, versus 54 percent of the others arrested and 21 percent incarcerated.
The results are based on public records, administrative data and interviews with study participants.
A spokeswoman for Chicago’s public schools noted that newly elected Mayor Rahm Emanuel committed during his campaign to ensuring that the city’s highest-risk kids have access to early childhood programs. And despite cuts to state early childhood funding, public preschool and kindergarten programs in Chicago have not been slashed for next year, she said.
Both the mom and dad are so excited on getting their bundle of joy that they start wondering when the baby will have control over its head, when the baby will roll over, though they know that they are unnecessarily worrying about it. Each baby needs support under his head and neck, for at least the first two months. A 6 to 8 week healthy and strong baby is able to raise his head slightly while lying on his back. While carrying the baby on your shoulder, it can be noticed that he has got little control over his head and can hold up the head shakily, at least for a few minutes. This is the time when child development will slowly pick pace and your baby will try to roll over on side. Since the question ‘when do babies roll over’ is lingering in your mind, here is the required answer.
When do Babies Start to Roll Over?
The average age of babies to roll over is 3 months. When the baby is about three months old, he will use his arms for support and will lift his head high, when placed on stomach. This mini-pushup exercise strengthens the muscles that are used to roll over. “Around three months” is the simple answer to the question “when do babies roll over on side”. Rolling over is one of the important developmental milestones in a baby’s life.
If the question, “when do babies roll over from stomach to back” is lingering in your mind, then let me tell you that though the answer is three months, it should be borne in mind that the time taken to learn the skill of rolling over may be different for every baby. When placed on back, the baby will amaze you and himself, the first time he rolls over on its side. It is easier for babies to flip from front to back first, but doing it the other way is perfectly normal and equally possible. Your baby will naturally develop his leg, neck, back, and arm muscles while learning to roll over. Once the baby starts rolling over on side, he will try to flip from back to front or front to back. The question, “when do babies roll over both ways” will not haunt you as the baby will soon demonstrate his skills. At 5 months your baby will be strong enough to lift his head high easily, perform push-up exercises on his arms, and raise his back to lift his chest off the ground. It’s a pleasure to watch the baby swaying on his stomach, kicking his legs, and swimming with his arms. All these exercises help strengthen the muscles and are required for quick rolling over in both directions. By the time he’s about 6 months old, he will able to roll over both ways (stomach to back and back to stomach). By the end of the seventh month, the baby will effortlessly roll over both ways.
Motivation and Encouragement
You can encourage your baby to develop new skills through play. You may lie down next to him on one side and encourage him to roll over to get closer to you. If you notice that the baby is trying to roll over, you may wiggle a toy or clap next to the side he is about to roll to. Applauding and smiling will motivate him to learn new skills. Some babies develop skills slowly, there is nothing to worry about this. Rolling over is really fun, but you need to take all the baby safety precautions. Never leave your baby alone and unattended on a bed or table or any other elevated surface. While trying to roll over, the baby may fall down. You should always keep your hand on him during diaper changes, as a measure of baby care. His first rolling-over experience should be enjoyable for him and for you too, it should not result in a serious injury.
It is a fact that most babies roll over within six months but it is also possible that your baby skips ‘rolling over’ altogether and moves on to sitting and lunging. Every baby is a unique baby. Let your baby develop at his own pace. You can always consult the pediatrician if you think your baby is lagging behind. He is the best person to evaluate your baby’s development. As the question, “when do babies roll over” was swirling in your mind, I have tried to provide the answer. I hope you find the information useful.
By Leena Palande